Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGD/PGS)
If you choose assisted reproductive technologies – ART procedures like In-vitro-fertilization (IVF) or IUI or ICSI, you might have gained a lot of knowledge about them, and that’s a good thing. Here are some additional things you ought to know if you want to have a healthy pregnancy. They are:
- PGD – Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
- PGS – Preimplantation Genetic Screening
PGS and PGD are done in the combination of one another called preimplantation genetic testing, which is performed on an embryo developed through ICSI or IVF procedures. Though these tests are done simultaneously, they differ in some ways.
A preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is a diagnostic test to detect abnormalities or defects in developed embryos before it is implanted.
PGD can reveal certain diseases such as Huntington’s disease or cystic fibrosis. The analysis is done for cells because they have the highest chance of passing from parents to their children.
A PGD or PGS test is designed to prevent the transfer of unhealthily formed embryos and to enhance the chances of achieving healthy pregnancy — technological advancements like this have been instrumental in limiting the incidence of certain congenital disabilities, especially among infertile couples.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
The IRA fertility clinic in Hyderabad has an accuracy rate of 98% in identifying unaffected embryos because we offer high-quality PGD tests. In this test, a biopsy (a few cells) is performed on the fifth day of fertilization (embryo) and analyzed in a genetic laboratory.
Genetic analysis of the embryo cells will provide information about the genetic changes that took place in the embryo. Around 2,000 single-gene disorders can be identified through PGD. The PGD procedure is commonly used before implantation in IVF treatments.
PGD tests are most commonly used to diagnose the following disorders that can be passed down to children from parents:
- BRCA1 & BRCA2 (caretaker gene) genetic mutations that caused by breast and ovarian cancers in women
- Sickle-cell anemia (inherited red blood cell disorder)
- Huntington’s disease (nerve cells degeneration in the brain)
- Thalassemia (inherited blood disorder)
- Tay-Sachs disease (a genetic disorder)
- Spinal muscular atrophy
- Hemophilia A (hereditary bleeding disorder)
Steps involved in a PGD:
- A preimplantation genetic test starts by collecting cells from the fertilized embryo.
- Then, the DNA of those cells is analyzed to determine whether they contain an inherited gene that could be passed to children.
- The test eliminates all the abnormal embryos, and the healthy embryo is implanted into your uterus.
- It is possible to preserve healthy embryos to use in the future. The whole process might take up to a week.
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS)
The IRA fertility clinic in Hyderabad offers PGS tests with the latest technology to diagnose genetic and chromosome disorders. The test is almost similar to the PGD test, with a few cells taken from the embryo on day five through biopsy for genetic screening.
Several tests are performed on the samples, including the analysis of chromosome structures and the count of chromosomes. In general, an embryo comprises 23 chromosomes, each from the female and male, during fertilization.
It has been reported that chromosome disorders lead to pregnancy loss and unsuccessful ART procedures. So a PGS test can find the embryo with abnormal chromosomes and helps to ensure a healthier pregnancy by transferring the unaffected embryos.
These defects can occur in any couple, and the risk in aged women increases by 25% – 28%. Embryo with these defects often fails to attach to the uterus lining. Although it is attached, it is still possible to have a pregnancy loss, stillbirth, preterm birth, or the baby may have birth defects.
Some benefits of PGS include:
- Reduction of miscarriage rates and irregular pregnancies
- Embryos with chromosomal abnormalities are identified
- An increase in healthy pregnancies can be observed
- You don’t have to invest time and money in several unsuccessful IVF cycles
- Even an aged woman stands a better chance of getting pregnant.
Preimplantation genetic testing can be life-changing for couples experiencing severe infertility, repeated miscarriages, or repeated IVF failure attempts among older couples. In order to avoid complications and to prevent the spread of specific defects to the offspring, IVF treatment with PGS/PGD is an ideal choice.
If you wish to undergo ART procedures, make sure to discuss genetic tests with your fertility expert. Our fertility doctors at IRA fertility clinic in Hyderabad say that PGS/PGD tests are beneficial in many ways as they can prevent several health conditions beforehand. If you have any questions regarding PGD/PGS or struggling with infertility, consult Dr. Mounika Reddy, our top fertility specialist at the IRA Center for Reproductive Health.